Workplace Fatigue

What Is Work Fatigue and How Can You Fight It

Anyone who has ever spent their days drudging away on a keyboard, just counting the seconds until they are able to head home, knows that the experience of work fatigue is undeniable. This compounding mental, physical, and emotional fatigue, often brought about by our desk-bound modern job environments can be simply inconvenient for some people, and entirely debilitating for others. 

There is good news, though.

Work fatigue has begun to be taken much more seriously, both in the workplace and clinical research. Thanks to this, real-world actionable advice to prevent it from becoming disruptive to your personal life, work productivity, and your job as a whole exists, and we have curated some of the most important aspects of it here. Rest assured, fatigue and strain you feel at the end of each workday are real and more widespread than you might think. Luckily, our advice to help prevent it is simple, straightforward, and you can begin implementing (at least parts of it) right away!

What Causes Workplace Fatigue? 

There are, almost certainly, many factors contributing to that extreme tiredness and reduced functional capacity that you often experience during, and at the end of your workday. 

Some common causes of workplace fatigue include:

  • Poor sleep quality and generally dysregulated circadian rhythms. 
  • Not enough downtime outside of work, caused by working long hours or poor time management (limiting our ability to overcome the mounting levels of fatigue). 
  • Improper light environment (too much artificial light, not enough time outside).
  • Work schedules are often out of alignment with when our circadian rhythms allow us to be most alert, focused, and motivated (known as our productivity curve). 

It is because of this diverse etiology that scientists haven’t been able to exclusively implicate work fatigue with any specific cause(s). This less-than enjoyable experience, can actually be broken down further into three separate classifications: physical, mental, and emotional work fatigue. 

You have no doubt experienced each of these unique strains at some point – especially if you are entrenched in our modern work environments, and expectations on a daily basis. Each of these three forms of fatigue can reduce your ability to perform tasks that are required of you at work. Physical and mental work fatigue can be enough of a problem by themselves (by inhibiting your ability to perform both physical and cognitive tasks, respectively). But emotional fatigue appears to be of particular concern as it can be more broadly depleting and places a drain on resources, both physical and mental, as well as emotional. 

Fatigue is generally more complicated to overcome than just being tired. This state can be unrelenting, and if left unchecked it will become a nearly constant experience where you lack motivation, the ability to concentrate, and it seems like your energy levels will never return. This is a scary place to be, as many of you can probably attest. 

The Dangers of Work Fatigue

Besides just being inconvenient and unpleasant, unmanaged work fatigue can have real, detrimental effects on your professional and personal life. If left unchecked, workplace fatigue will almost inevitably lead to you feeling dissatisfied with your work, cause you to withdraw from coworkers, degrade your ability to perform your job well, and all of this places a drain on various resources for both you and your employers. 

Outside of working hours, the consequences for ignoring the signs of mounting workplace fatigue are no less dire. Because fatigue is accumulative, you simply won’t be able to leave it all behind you once you leave the office. Those who have become burned out at work are more likely to abuse drugs or alcohol, withdraw from family and friends, express unfounded anger towards loved ones, make poor financial decisions, and generally take out their frustrations in less-than productive ways. 

As fatigue continues unmanaged, you can expect your mental, physical, and emotional health to continue dissipating right along with it. Our immune system is especially impacted by psychological stress and fatigue – leading to decreases in immune function and an increased likelihood of developing disease or dysfunction. As you can see, there are legitimate and serious negative consequences to the very real problem of work fatigue. It wouldn’t be fair however, to present this problem without providing some actionable steps to prevent workplace fatigue from disrupting your life. 

How To Fight Fatigue At Work

Luckily, there is a lot that we can do to prevent this mounting problem from impacting our mental, social, and physical health. A lot of which is simply remembering to do the small things like prioritizing sleep, moving more, and taking a break (when we already know we should). Here are a few key ways to start fixing the burned-out feeling you commonly experience during, or at the end of every workday.

Shake Up Your Schedule

We all know some people are night owls, while others have to be in bed before 9 or they will be in full zombie-mode the next day. This disparity is at least partially explained by differences in what is known as “chronotypes”.

Discovering for yourself where you fall on this spectrum can allow you to hone in your most important work, and most demanding tasks within those hours of the day in which you will be most productive. Have an energy lull every afternoon around 2 or 3? Capitalize on this fact by making that the time of day that you work on less important tasks such as answering emails or organizing. Whenever possible, save your most cognitively-demanding tasks for the time of day when you are able to be most productive. Aligning your work with what is known as your “productivity curve” can allow your work day to flow much more easily, and reduce the likelihood of you feeling overwhelmed or burned out. 

Focus On Work/Life Balance

American workers are in the office, or otherwise on the clock significantly more than any other developed country – 140 hours more annually than Japanese workers and 260 hours more every year than our friends across the pond in the UK. 

Part of this is due to our cultural gravitation towards production and advancing ourselves socioeconomically, and the rest may be due to social pressures to maintain employment. Though it seems obvious to schedule time outside of work, this is rarely done in America. 

Taking time to take care of yourself should be at the forefront of your mind if you are hoping to prevent, or begin reversing the ill-effects of workplace fatigue. Research has shown that individuals experiencing burnout had higher rates of depression, insomnia, hospitalization for mental disorders, and much more. Further than just planning time off though, taking care of yourself means eating right, sleeping right (more on this in a moment), exercising, and generally focusing on what is most important for human health. 

Take More Breaks

American office workers are notorious for working incessantly. People worldwide are afforded many breaks throughout the day, something our workplace culture has apparently forgotten about long ago. 

Swedish workers, for instance, have an extended break during the workday called a fika – where they often have coffee and socialize. Our collective propensity for gluing ourselves to our desks continues during lunch time as well. Only an estimated 1 out of every 5 workers in the United States takes time away from their desk, and their work during lunch time. This is in stark contrast to other countries where lunch nearly never takes place in front of a computer screen. 

To tap into the increased productivity, reduced fatigue, and enhanced well-being that workers in other countries seem to have found, simply plan to take breaks more often. Even standing, or going for a short walk, which can take only a few moments can do wonders for your circulation and thus helps improve your overall health. Schedule more breaks at work, then hold yourself to it. 

Use Natural Energy-Boosters

There is a reason why the line at Starbucks is always long, and their drive-thru is always full. Caffeine works phenomenally well at suppressing fatigue, increasing alertness, and making you generally feel better. What caffeine does not do well is allow for proper sleep, and circadian rhythm function. Excessive caffeine consumption will disrupt sleep – leading to increased fatigue, increased caffeine intake to compensate, and the vicious cycle continues. 

Because of the potential for sleep disruption, it is wise to look elsewhere for a natural way to boost your energy levels whenever possible. There are quite a few options for you to try next time you feel that afternoon slump. 

  • Adaptogenic herbs like ashwagandha, and rhodiola rosea are two common tools for improving energy, balance, and focus without being stimulating.
  • Stimulants such as maca, guarana, ginseng, and bacopa monnieri are excellent options to improve energy and cognitive function without many of the potential side effects of coffee or other sources high in caffeine. 
  • Other natural energy boosters such as Vitamin B12, CoQ10, and tools to improve sleep such as CBD, magnesium, melatonin, or valerian root can work wonders for helping to manage fatigue. 

Optimize Your Workplace

With all the talk about optimization in the health and wellness space, it is curious that not much emphasis is placed on optimizing your workspace. 

Creating a designated workspace allows you to focus on your work, and less on distractions. This has become increasingly important as the COVID-19 pandemic has made it necessary for many of us to work from home. Not having a clear separation between your working space, and your living space can blur the lines between work and rest, leading to further fatigue and disruption. 

Beyond just creating a designated workspace, you can set yourself up for success by managing the kinds and amount of light you are staring down. The artificial blue light from our LED computer screens is stimulating, but incessantly so. Whenever possible, working outside in natural light, dimming or filtering the light on your devices, and introducing different light sources such as red or near-infrared can work wonders in the battle against harmful light exposure. 

We don’t need (or want) the perpetual stress hormone release we experience when our eyes are locked onto a computer for hours on end. Managing your light exposure is absolutely vital for protecting our health in the 21st century, not just for managing work fatigue. 

Improve Your Sleep

Much about our modern lives’ inhibits our ability to get enough quality sleep. Stress, Netflix, stimulants, light, Instagram, and much more seem to be fundamentally opposed to us getting to bed on time, sleeping well, and waking up full of energy like we should do every day. 

We have written extensively about how to improve both the quantity and quality of your sleep, but we can sum up the importance of it for managing work fatigue very concisely: 

Getting enough (quality) sleep is the number one tool you have available to manage fatigue of any kind. 

Unfortunately, many of us don’t get enough sleep to support their overall health – let alone to be able to thrive. The reasons for your sleep (either duration or quality) being less-than optimal can be entirely unique to you, and so can the plan to fix the situation. But what matters is that you actively experiment and find ways to improve it before work fatigue develops into the mental, physical, and emotional effects that we are all hoping to avoid. 

Workplace fatigue and the ill-effects it can bring about are nothing to scoff at. Taking the time to take care of yourself, and managing the diverse sources of friction in the workspace that can make matters worse are two excellent and obvious areas which you can start making meaningful improvements in your mental, physical, and emotional health. 

What Are the Eight Dimensions of Wellness?

As modern Americans, we tend to share an extremely limited ideal of what real health actually means. 

The pursuit of the inextricable duo of health and wellness requires much more than simply avoiding illness or disease – it demands exploration and development across multiple dimensions of the human experience.

Western society by and large has been conditioned to look at things in reductionist terms. Black and white, good or bad, healthy or sick. But the World Health Organization, seen by many as one of the primary authorities on human health, has developed their own standards (they go as far as to call it their constitution) for what they believe comprises actual wellness – and it covers far more than just avoiding disease of dysfunction. They believe that real health requires a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and that governments worldwide have a responsibility to provide the right atmosphere, resources, and opportunities for each and every one of their citizens to realize their full potential. 

To achieve a state of physical, mental, and social well-being, attention must be paid to each and every dimension that contributes to creating this state. As it turns out, there seems to be either entirely unique, and yet interconnected dimensions that collectively contribute to overall wellness. These dimensions are physical, emotional, social, intellectual, environmental, financial, spiritual, and occupational wellness. None of these can create a sense of overall wellness alone – they all feed into one another to achieve balance and harmony. Each must be cultivated and nurtured over time. 

As human beings we are extremely adaptable, and we can survive without fulfilling many, or even most of these dimensions – but we won’t thrive. This disparity is precisely why we have written this article – to illuminate each of these dimensions as well as to provide you with a few actionable steps for each to help you begin to curate and maintain more thorough health and wellness habits and practices into your daily life. Each dimension may have more or less importance than others, depending upon who you are and where you are at on your health and wellness journey, but the very nature of these unique aspects is that they are all deeply and fully interconnected with each other. 

Physical Wellness

Something that we need to recognize about our modern lifestyles is that they just aren’t very conducive to good physical health. We sit far too much and move far too little. We are overfed but undernourished. We are fully displaced from our ancestral ancestors in these ways. But our internal biology is still basically the same! It is no wonder we are experiencing an astronomical increase in chronic disease and dysfunction. So once we acknowledge this context, the necessity for prioritizing better sleep, more movement, and a more whole-foods based diet becomes increasingly apparent. 

There are an endless number of ways that we can improve our physical health. But the good news is that there are a few key points to focus on that will get you most of the way there. Prioritize the following aspects for physical wellness:

  • Move, alot. 
  • Eat food with actual nutritional value.
  • Sleep, well. 

There is, of course, much nuance that applies to each of those. For example, how much movement, and what kinds are appropriate for each individual might vary a bit – but generally these three statements apply to each of us to some degree. 

You may need to look deeper into each of these points to determine how they specifically apply to you. Moving more is something that most modern humans can benefit from – it should be no surprise to hear that. Finding what kinds of movement you enjoy and can do consistently is a good place to start. And tracking your daily steps appears to be one of the most effective strategies for losing weight or maintaining a healthy weight for long periods of time. Once daily activity is one of your non-negotiables, perhaps the logical next step is to begin resistance training. Lifting weights has been linked to a whole host of beneficial effects, some of which will last a lifetime. 

Eating food with actual nutritional value is crucial for many reasons. You need vitamins for enzymes to work and cells to function properly. Some minerals are utilized by your immune system to get toxins out of your body. Your brain needs fatty acids and beneficial plant compounds to thrive. Specific amino acids are required for certain tissues, hormones, and neurotransmitters to be built. Whole, natural foods and the wide variety of nutrients they contain are an enormous part of how we can maintain our physical health. You can also utilize supplementation to procure certain nutrients that are difficult to get from the diet. 

It also might be beneficial to verify that your gut is in proper working order. With the rise in chronic inflammation and gut-related dysfunction, consider strategies with proven gut-healing properties like fasting, certain diets, drinking bone broth, collagen, BPC-157, colostrum, or zinc may just do the trick. 

Sleeping well means more than just being in bed for 8 hours a night – though that would be a big step in the right direction for most people. To make sure we are getting the most out of having a free healing/restoration mode, we need to put in actual effort to protect the quality of our sleep as well. Reducing light exposure at night, and waking up at the same time everyday seem to be the two biggest requirements to entrain your circadian rhythm and guarantee you are going to enjoy the countless benefits that sleep provides us. 

Emotional wellness

It is tough to say if the world is becoming more or less stressful for the people living in it. Life has become easier for most people, but it has also become more demanding, busy, and distracting at the same time. 

We are (virtually) connected with more people than ever before – with the COVID lockdown only increasing the digital nature of these relationships. But most of us aren’t exactly designed to be as isolated as our modern society is, especially as we have been for the last year or so. Humans evolved with social interaction and dynamic relationships at the core of our how we coexist and grow with one another. These modern shifts in the human experience bring with them an increased need for finding coping strategies that are, at the very least, not destructive. This is what emotional wellness means to those of us living in modern society., and we can look towards some basic principles of wellness to help kickstart the development of emotional wellness. If you need to improve this dimension, start doing the following:

  • Reduce stress. 
  • Learn to simply acknowledge and cope with emotions – good and bad. 
  • Give your brain an edge. 
  • Manage inflammation to improve emotional resilience.

The general stress response is an extremely beneficial part of life – chronic stress on the other hand, couldn’t be less beneficial for our long term health. There are countless psychological and physiological reasons why stress is bad for us, but most everyone is aware of these by now. It is more important that we direct attention towards stress management practices that will help ameliorate some of the harmful effects of chronic stress. Practicing meditation or another mindfulness approach, get enough sleep, engage in breathing exercises often, do some yoga, and move enough everyday. These stress management techniques will often have the added benefit of helping you on a fundamental level to deal with all kinds of emotions.

Social Wellness

The relationships we have with other people can have an unbelievably deep impact on our overall sense of well-being. 

If you wish to develop a sense of connection, belonging, and rock-solid support system that you can count on no matter what, forging relationships is a big part of where you should focus your energy.

This dimension often goes overlooked because we live in a very work-focused culture. We all know we should spend time with family and friends, but that can always wait – or so we seem to think. Social wellness is absolutely crucial to building emotional resilience as well (though it is entirely unique from the emotional wellness dimension) and it allows us to better communicate with the people around us. Here are just a few ways that you can start to build up your sense of social wellness:

  • First, take time to reflect on yourself and your unique social needs. What aspects of your current social life do you actually enjoy? What parts do you wish you could improve upon?
  • Make an effort to keep in touch with supportive friends and family – especially during times of increased isolation such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Become a better listener – practice!
  • Join a club or organization with like-minded people.

Intellectual Wellness

Your brain is like a muscle – it needs to work in order to thrive. This is the essence and basis of developing intellectual wellness. We are inherently curious creatures, and acknowledging that fact allows us to find ways to satisfy this drive in productive and creative ways.

Curating a state of intellectual wellness will likely be lifelong pursuit – as is the case with all other dimensions. Yet, we tend to stop seeking intellectual development as we age. We are never too old to benefit from engaging in creative and mentally stimulating activities. It is never too late to expand your knowledge or skills, and share it with your friends, family, or community. 

Every dimension of wellness will take work to develop, and intellectual wellness is no different – it will take effort and focus to create balance. What is most important of all however, is that you remain open-minded and receptive to new situations. If you aren’t open in this way, no amount of work will manifest intellectual wellness in your life. Some more useful tips to begin curating intellectual wellness within your own life include:

  • Be more mindful and listen. If you aren’t actively listening, fully present, and engaged, you won’t fully receive the information being given. 
  • Find a hobby that allows you to learn, develop skills, and grow your capabilities.
  • Traveling to experience other countries and cultures will change your perspectives and allow you to grow intellectually.
  • Find a way to be creative. This can be fulfilled by a hobby, or even a career (which we will discuss again later). Remember, we are creative beings – express yourself.

Environmental Wellness

Nobody would argue that the environment around us can’t have a profound impact on the way that you experience life. Environmental wellness is about recognizing this potential for your surroundings to either enhance or degrade your life, and taking action to redesign them to benefit you, and those around you.

Environmental wellness is really quite a broad term. It can refer to that which is in close proximity to you like your home, bedroom, office space, cubicle, etc. – or it can be expanded to the world at large. The concept is all the same, though. We must be inspired and intentional about living a lifestyle that is respectful of our surrounding and practice habits that promote a healthy environment. Some more tips to help develop a more complete sense of environmental wellness include:

  • Do your part to conserve energy, recycle, and limit your footprint on the world.
  • Volunteer with, or donate to organizations dedicated to improving the environment.
  • Appreciate and understand our earth’s finite resources. 
  • Spend time in nature by camping, hiking, or just generally experiencing the natural beauty of our dwindling natural resources.

Spiritual Wellness 

The realization of the profound importance behind cultivating spiritual wellness escapes more people than perhaps any other dimension. It may be because this dimension is shrouded by an intersection of religious beliefs and convictions – but it shouldn’t be. 

Spiritual wellness can, and often does, have absolutely nothing to do with organized religious practices. Though traditional religious practices can fulfill the need for developing spiritual wellness, and often do so extremely well, having this somewhat limited perception of what this dimension means can perhaps dissuade people from cultivating it in the first place.

At its fundamental core, spiritual wellness is about finding meaning and purpose in life, developing your own personal morals and beliefs, and exploring your inner self. This exploration and development can allow you to create balance, become more resilient to obstacles and setbacks, and find a more comprehensive appreciation for the human experience. 

As we said, organized religion can play a major role in developing this dimension, but spiritual wellness doesn’t have to exclusively come from this avenue. What is most important for developing wellness in this dimension is the practice and exploration of your inner self. To start cultivating your own sense of spiritual wellness, try doing the following:

  • Take time to be alone, and think about your inner self.
  • Reflect and explore life changing events. Consider your perceptions of each situation, whether they are productive, and whether or not they are congruent with reality. 
  • Practice meditation or engage in another mindfulness approach.
  • Actively practice acceptance of situations.
  • Remain curious as you age. Explore new topics and ideas that interest you.
  • Consider traditional religious faiths and find one that you align most with.

Occupational Wellness

Many of us work to earn a paycheck, so we can do what we enjoy on the weekends with the ones we love. But this may not be enough. Not enough of us derive actual satisfaction and fulfillment from our work. Developing occupation wellness in our lives requires us to acknowledge this fact and inspires us to work towards finding a profession that satisfies this itch. 

Our occupation can be more than just a paycheck. Some of us may find our calling in life almost by accident. Maybe you’ve always wanted to be a nurse, and no other occupation will allow you to be fulfilled in the same way. Perhaps a career in law enforcement or firefighting will enrich you each and every day – and you’ve known that was your path for as long as you can remember. For some of us however, it can take much more time. The occupation that helps you derive a sense of meaning and purpose in life may be something you haven’t even considered yet. This is why it is absolutely essential to keep trying, and keep searching. More tips to enhance your sense of occupational wellness are:

  • Take an honest assessment of yourself and your occupational needs. What kinds of tasks do you enjoy? Which would you rather never do again?
  • Consider both paid and volunteer opportunities that interest you. (remember you may find a path you had never even considered)
  • Actively practice communication and proper conflict management with your coworkers. Perhaps better work relationships can help create a greater sense of fulfillment in the job you already have.
  • Set career goals for yourself and constantly work towards improving and accomplishing these goals.

Financial Wellness

Though the financial and occupational wellness dimensions seem quite similar, they are quite different in reality. Financial wellness focuses on developing a sense of satisfaction and security with current and future financial situations – whereas the occupational wellness dimension is a bit more existential in nature.

Financial stressors are one of the more common pitfalls of modern life for many people. We aren’t commonly taught how to manage our finances by tracking expenses, budgeting, or becoming financially disciplined in general. Setting both short and long term financial goals is a great first step towards developing wellness in this dimension, but to take it further than that, consider trying:

  • Actively work to analyze finances to identify problems before they occur.
  • Maintain organized records of your finances.
  • Plan ahead. Set budgets, and stick to a plan to reach your goals.
  • Take classes to better understand your financial situations and learn to create discipline. 

8 Dimensions of Wellness

By now it must be abundantly clear that each of these eight dimensions of wellness are entirely connected and dependent on one another to reach their full potential – and for you to reach yours as well. 

Each of these dimensions will take work to develop and maintain, but that isn’t to say that the process won’t be enjoyable. Keep in mind that every bit of progress you make will help to balance your wellness overall and create a sense of congruence within different aspects of your life.

CJC-1295 & Ipamorelin Combined

CJC-1295 is an incredibly safe and effective compound that is able to stimulate the production and release of growth hormone from your pituitary gland.

If you are searching the internet in order to find a way to naturally increase your levels of growth hormone, CJC is probably just what you are seeking to improve your overall quality of life.


After we reach the age of 30, our growth hormone levels drop by as much as 15% on average, for every further decade of life. CJC-1295 is able to provide an increase in growth hormone levels naturally by binding to receptors designed for growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) on your pituitary gland. This helps turn on a switch in your growth hormone factory that otherwise loses its ability to function optimally as we age. In a study conducted with healthy men and women between the ages of 21 and 61, CJC-1295 was able to increase serum growth hormone levels by 200-1000%. In these subjects, improved growth hormone production and release continued for up to 6 days. This extended capacity for improving hormonal function is due to CJC-1295 having a half life of about 6-8 days – an impressively long duration when compared to other peptides that also act on the GHRH receptors. Interestingly, it’s potency as a growth secretagogue is just one reason that CJC-1295 has become such an effective tool for safely increasing growth hormone levels.


Thanks to the fact that CJC-1295 stimulates your own body to produce and release growth hormone in a biologically harmonious way, it is possible to achieve increased growth hormone levels without having to resort to traditional hGH treatment. Introducing GH directly through injections is notoriously rife with major side effects. In contrast, the side effects of CJC-1295 are generally mild and transient, with the most common being irritation at the injection site, headache, flushing, and dizziness. Understanding the benefits and side effects of CJC-1295 will help you make an informed decision about whether starting treatment is right for you.


Though at first glance it may seem similar to CJC-1295, Ipamorelin is a completely different kind of growth hormone secretagogue.

Yes, it accomplishes the same task as CJC-1295, but it does so in an entirely unique and complementary way.

While CJC-1295 binds to GHRH receptors, Ipamorelin stimulates the production and release of growth hormone by binding to receptors for the lesser-known hormone named ghrelin on your pituitary gland. Ghrelin is one of three hormones that act to regulate the release of growth hormone (the other two being somatostatin which stops release, and GHRH which CJC mimics). Because they turn on completely different hormonal switches, CJC-1295 and Ipamorelin are often stacked together to create an even more profound effect than either would in isolation.

Before you buy Ipamorelin online, consider the pros and cons of using this incredibly effective peptide for increasing growth hormone. Side effects of Ipamorelin are relatively mild and include headache, flushing, dizziness, and more – similar to CJC-1295, Ipamorelin is widely regarded as safe and highly effective.


CJC-1295 and Ipamorelin work together well for many reasons. One you should already know; they activate separate switches (receptors) on the pituitary gland – resulting in the increased production and release of growth hormone in a natural and biologically regulated way.

Well, that’s one reason they are so effective at elevating growth hormone levels – the other is that CJC-1295 takes 1-4 hours to reach peak serum levels, while Ipamorelin works much more rapidly, and is essentially cleared from your system quickly as it’s half life is about 2 hours.

Ipamorelin gets to work quickly and begins stimulating growth hormone release before being broken down in your body, right about when CJC-1925 is beginning to take effect, a one-two punch for increasing growth hormone levels.

Unlike some other treatments that are used to increase growth hormone levels, these two peptides are incredibly specific (this specificity is exactly why peptides are gaining traction in precision medicine). Neither Ipamorelin nor CJC-1295 have an effect on other hormones, particularly cortisol which is commonly elevated as a result of many anti-aging or hormonal replacement treatments.


When you use CJC-1295 and Ipamorelin, your growth hormone levels will rise, resulting in the potential for a myriad of health benefits.You should expect an increase in muscle mass, lower body fat levels, increased appetite, and better sleep – the importance of all these factors for long-term health cannot be overemphasized.

Recent research has found that increased levels of lean body mass (primarily muscle, but also bones, and organs to a lesser extent) plays a causal role in promoting health and longevity – especially in the latter half of life

Overall, the combination of CJC-1295 and Ipamorelin is an effective way to increase vitality and quality of life for those of us who are experiencing the unwanted effects of aging and decreased growth hormone levels. Because there is the potential for some very mild side effects, Ikon Health will put you in touch with our medical professionals to help you determine if treatment is right for you. Peptides like CJC-1295 and Ipamorelin are by no means the only route to health and fitness, and a sound training, nutrition, and recovery plan are all invaluable in the process. Ikon Health can help you determine exactly how tools like peptides, IV therapy, injections, sauna, and more can be used to optimize your uniquely individual transformation process.

The Ultimate Guide to Vitamin D

When you take a hard look at the list of potential benefits vitamin D can provide, you might quickly realize they are really just a perfect example of the powers of genetic expression.

Nearly all of the power that vitamin D wields comes from its ability to influence what is known as the expression of your DNA. This influence over how your genes are expressed comes from the choices you make (or don’t make) in the realms of nutrition, training, and lifestyle. Being protective of your vitamin D status should be near the top of your health priority list – along with getting enough quality sleep, adequate movement, and nutrition as a whole. You might be wondering why vitamin D deserves to be mentioned with three major pillars of health and wellness. To understand vitamin D’s VIP status, it’s best to start with the importance of micronutrients altogether – there are roughly 40 of them on the essentials list. All of which we must get from our diet in order to survive, let alone thrive. After that we can shift the focus of our conversation to vitamin D in particular and highlight some fascinating research that illuminates just how important it is. There will also be some clues on how to determine if you may be at risk for a deficiency, and how to bring your levels up to what is known as the “sweet spot” for long term health.

The importance of micronutrients in general cannot be overemphasized, and vitamin D is one that should be given an even higher priority than most in your nutrition plan.

What Are Micronutrients?

Vitamin D Shots

Collectively, micronutrients are a family of roughly 40 vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and amino acids that we require for stuff in our body to work properly.

Nearly every biochemical process (there are a lot) within us requires some sort of micronutrient to function optimally. We may not feel a deficiency right away, in fact many people live years with suboptimal levels of many micronutrients. Our modern diets tend to be devoid of most micronutrients, although it is possible to get everything you need from whole foods – if you work hard enough at it. Another factor limiting our nutrient intake is the fact that certain classes of micronutrients are more readily absorbed by humans than others.

Vitamins for instance, are divided into water-soluble and fat-soluble varieties. Those that are fat-soluble require fat to be eaten with them in order to be absorbed effectively.

This is just an example of one potential reason why Americans are generally suffering from an insidious depletion of most micronutrients – even if they are getting all their fruits and veggies. For example, in the United States…

  • 70% of the population does not get enough vitamin D.
  • 60% is missing out on adequate levels of vitamin E (a group of compounds that are extremely effective antioxidants).
  • 45% of the population in the US does not get enough magnesium (required for energy production, DNA repair, and so much more).
  • 35% of the population grossly under-consuming vitamin K.
  • 30% of the population is not getting enough vitamin A.

Each of these missing micronutrients has countless roles to play throughout the human body, and when you are not getting enough of one, your body uses whatever you do have for tasks that are required for immediate survival. Long-term tasks such as DNA repair, that will take years to develop into dysfunction, are placed on the back-burner – a phenomenon known as the “triage effect”.

Benefits of Vitamin D

So what is that makes vitamin D so special among this list of these already important building blocks of health we call micronutrients?

Vitamin D is so important, that we’re able to make it from the sun’s UVB rays. Once created from UVB rays, it is converted to what is known as vitamin D3 (if supplementing, you should be getting it already in D3 form). Once in D3 form, it is converted by the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D. From there it is converted once more in the kidneys to what is known as the active form or 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D (this is what they test the levels of in your blood). Once in this form, vitamin D is able to do its work all around the body as a steroid hormone. Steroid hormones have the ability to regulate the expression of genes within our DNA – essentially turning them on or off. Flipping this switch results in various downstream effects controlled by that particular gene. 

Another profound effect that inadequate vitamin D levels can have on our body and mind is through production of a key neurotransmitter called serotonin. Vitamin D can be thought of as a rate limiter for serotonin production in the body. It acts as a cofactor for the enzyme known as tryptophan hydroxylase. This enzyme is required for the production of serotonin thus, vitamin D is required for you to produce enough serotonin for normal cognitive function.

Serotonin production isn’t the only function of vitamin D that may convince you to prioritize supplementation to maintain adequate levels within your blood. Vitamin D levels have also been directly correlated with modulation of the aging process.

Vitamin D has been shown to slow shortening of your telomeres, one of our closest markers of actual biological aging. Telomeres are the little caps at the end of strands of DNA which protect it from damage and subsequent mutations. On average, the older we get, the shorter our telomeres become. In one study involving thousands of female twins, those with the lowest levels of vitamin D also had the shortest telomeres. Another important finding of this study was that more is not better with vitamin D. Those in the study that had the highest vitamin D levels (exceeding the suggested range of 40 to 60 ng/ml) also had markedly shorter telomeres. This is why it’s important to fall within the vitamin D  “sweet spot” of 40 to 60 ng/ml. There are countless more reasons why it’s crucial to try and hit this sweet spot for vitamin D – inadequate levels have been linked to

  • Reduced cognitive function
  • Increased inflammation
  • DNA damage
  • Increased risk of cancer
  • Lower levels of nerve growth factor
  • Greater risk for all cause mortality. 

Vitamin D Deficiency

You may be asking how you might be able to determine if you are deficient in vitamin D.

Currently, the gold standard of determining if you are deficient in vitamin D is a blood test – preferably done before beginning supplementation to determine your baseline levels. If you do not have access to a blood test, there are a few risk factors that may help you determine if you are susceptible to a D deficiency. Those that are especially at risk of deficiency include overweight individuals (because D is a fat soluble vitamin, it will be absorbed and essentially held hostage by fat cells), as well as the advanced age population (the older we get the less D we are able to make from the sun). Also at risk are people living in more northern latitudes (especially during the winter when sun exposure is limited), and people with a darker complexion (the skin pigment melanin acts as a natural sun block). Once you have determined whether or not you may be deficient, or if you are seeking to optimize your current levels, there are a variety of ways in which you can increase your vitamin D.

How to Get Your Vitamin D Levels Up

Current mainstream recommendations for daily vitamin D intake seem to be extremely low. Research has shown that taking 4,000 IU of vitamin D3 a day was enough to bring deficient individuals up to a level sufficient for normal physiological function. Notice that this number is far above the RDA laid out by the government, so please don’t be shy and go get your levels monitored by a medical professional. When choosing a supplement, opt for the D3 version rather than the D2 version whenever possible. This is because the D2 version is not as easily converted by most people to the active form of vitamin D within the body. Sun exposure is also a fantastic way to raise vitamin D levels within the body – provided you live in a location that receives adequate UVB radiation, and you are exposed to the sun for sufficient amount of time.

Unfortunately there aren’t many foods that have significant amounts of vitamin D other than some fish, algae, mushrooms, and fortified food products. That is why we typically recommend an oral supplement. For those individuals that have difficulty remembering to take vitamins or supplements in general, intramuscular vitamin D3 injections have been shown to significantly raise levels in deficient adults for up to 12 weeks, negating the need for daily supplementation during that time.

Vitamin D is no doubt an especially important micronutrient that has sadly not been given enough attention. At least 70% of the US population could greatly benefit from increasing their vitamin D levels via supplementation or whole food nutrition. Many micronutrient deficiencies can go years without being discovered, don’t let the 1000+ genes regulated by vitamin D be ignored!

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+)

Every so often a mysterious new molecule grabs the public’s attention – making the rounds of news, magazines, and social media before quickly disappearing into irrelevance soon after emerging.

This disappearing act is often a result of the use of largely unsubstantiated claims about how the newly discovered compound will help you live longer, train harder, regrow your hair, improve your sex life, or all the above.

Unfortunately, because of the regularity with which these unproven, or just plain untrue, claims appear on their newsfeeds, most people have rightfully become cynical. As a result of this cynicism, actually effective compounds like NAD+ are often scoffed at as just the latest trendy topic that will be replaced next week with something new. Wait a minute though, NAD+ is one compound that won’t soon be replaced, and it is only beginning to gain traction in the anti-aging and generally health-minded community. The fact is, NAD is functionally irreplaceable because it is absolutely critical for life to exist.

Why is NAD+ So Important?

NAD’s importance for the existence of life is due to these facts:

  • It takes part in hundreds of metabolic processes.
  • It is both a cofactor for energy production and a source of energy itself.
  • It plays a role in DNA repair.
  • It is crucial for immune system activation, and so much more.

But with everything in health and wellness, it is important to look at all of the facts and determine whether utilizing NAD+ is both practical and applicable for you as an individual. All the lab tests and research in the world mean nothing if you aren’t able to apply the information and tools they provide into your daily life. That is what we are going to do today – help you determine whether increasing your NAD+ levels is practical and applicable to you.

To do this, we will cover:

  1. What NAD+ is.
  2. How to effectively increase your levels through supplementation and/or lifestyle modifications.
  3. What the benefits of increasing your NAD+ levels are.
  4. What the potential dangers of elevating them may be.  

What is NAD+


NAD+ is such an amazingly complex molecule that is involved in a seemingly never-ending list of processes throughout the body – so any attempt to fully examine it will almost certainly be in vain.

You may have already heard something about NAD+ on the news, social media, or even from some friends in the know. Common descriptions of NAD+ don’t even begin to do this amazing compound justice, though. NAD+ is found in every single living cell on earth, working as a cofactor (a molecule that assists enzymes in chemical reactions), and playing an essential role in multiple physiological processes such as DNA repair, energy metabolism, immune activation, and the list goes on. NAD+ is also essential for the activity of sirtuins, a class of enzymes involved in longevity (resveratrol, one of those molecules that periodically makes the rounds in popular media is another potent activator of sirtuins).

But that’s not all, NAD+ is also vital for the activity of the PARP family of DNA-repair enzymes. NAD+ ‘s central role in the process of turning the macronutrients we eat into energy your cells can actually use (known as ATP) is likely why the depletion of NAD+ that happens with age has been associated with the onset and progression of multiple age-related conditions – from metabolic dysfunction to neurodegenerative disease. 

Our body’s require such high quantities of both NAD+ and it’s reduced form NADH, that we have the ability to create both from multiple sources. NAD+ levels can be raised or supported by many foods, and can be directly synthesized in our body from the amino acid tryptophan. Supplementation with nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), nicotinic acid (NA), and nicotinamide riboside (NR), all known collectively as niacin equivalents, has been shown to raise NAD+ levels in certain tissues and organs as well.

Diet and supplementation are not the primary source of NAD+ however, not even close, in fact. Our largest source of this amazing molecule is an internal mechanism known as the NAD+ salvage pathway. When our cells use NAD+, a molecule called nicotinamide is left as a byproduct. Nicotinamide is then converted into NMN, and eventually back into NAD+. Unfortunately, this process of recycling NAD+ is shut off when sufficient amounts of NAD+ are created – presenting a potentially harmful obstacle which we will discuss later on. So now that you have a somewhat better idea of just how important NAD+ is in the body, let’s go over a few highly effective strategies to increase your levels.

How Do I Increase NAD+?

Luckily, there are quite a few ways to increase your NAD+ levels – many of which won’t cost you a dime.

Certain lifestyle practices that are commonly accepted as life-extending, such as intermittent fasting, caloric restriction, and exercise all increase NAD+ levels substantially. Exercise and caloric restriction of any kind are able to raise NAD+ levels because of an energy sensing mechanism within our cells. When our cells use energy, levels of NAD+ within the cell rises. This then activates enzymes like sirtuins which are linked to improved cognitive function, increased mitochondrial biogenesis, improved hormonal function, and reduced inflammation. 

The ability of sirtuins to reduce inflammation is especially important due to the fact that chronically elevated levels of inflammation may actually deplete NAD+, creating a downward spiral of cellular damage and degradation. Both the loss of NAD+ that comes with age and reduced sirtuin activity has been observed as a fundamental occurrence in the aging process. 

Another effective means of increasing your NAD levels is through supplementation. There are a few important caveats to add when deciding on a supplementation plan for NAD+ however – the first of which is the source.

The group of supplements known as “NAD boosters”, or “niacin equivalents,” have all been shown to effectively raise NAD levels throughout the body to varying degrees in different tissues. Unfortunately, NAD+ itself has poor bioavailability and is quickly broken down into its precursor nicotinamide. This is an important fact to consider because high levels of nicotinamide have actually been shown to inhibit sirtuin activation, potentially eliminating some of the sought-out beneficial effects of increased NAD+ levels. This is just one aspect of an elaborate and confusing relationship between our cells and NAD+ supplementation.

Currently, your best bet is to engage in lifestyle practices that will naturally increase levels of NAD+. Further research is needed to determine whether NAD+ administered through an IV is an effective and reliable means of increasing levels systemically, although more and more research is beginning to suggest that it is likely. Oral supplementation of nicotinamide riboside (NR) has also shown promise at raising NAD+ levels in plasma. Only time and experimentation will tell if supplementation will provide an effective means to raise NAD+ levels throughout the body – for now though, try to incorporate exercise and strategic caloric restriction whenever it is appropriate and safe for you to do so. 

Is NAD+ Safe?

There have recently been some concerns that increasing NAD+ levels may contribute to cancer growth. While this will take far more research to confirm or debunk, this particular finding was found only with a very specific and relatively rare form of cancer. It otherwise is widely believed that increasing NAD+ via supplementation or other strategies is incredibly beneficial and may improve healthspan. Due to its ubiquity in all living cells, it is unlikely that NAD+ has any potentially harmful effects whatsoever. Until more research is done to elucidate this concern however, and to determine how to best supplement with NAD+, look to practices like intermittent fasting, exercise, and generally restricting calories which are all proven to be effective options. NAD+ is far from another trendy health hashtag, but we are nowhere near fully understanding its potential for improving health and longevity. 

PRP Injections: Healing with Platelet Rich Plasma

Healing from injury, disease, or dysfunction is an incredibly complex process – yet we take it for granted as an expected result of unseen biological forces.

Content with standing idly by, most assume that we cannot use the tools we now have available to take proactive and decisive steps to enhance (or in some cases, begin) the healing process. If we are going to try and flip the script and take charge of our healing, it makes sense to start with the center of how the body heals physically  – platelets. 

Your platelets are one the first responders to injury. They are immediately drawn to the site and go to work releasing their granules filled with growth factors and an inflammatory cascade then ensues – kicking off the healing process. Growth factors, proteins, and various other substances released by the granules enable the body to heal, enable us to heal. Harnessing this innate power is easier than you think, and platelet-rich plasma injections (PRP) show incredible promise in the field of regenerative medicine. There is still a lot to find out about this cutting edge technique that has been used to remedy all kinds of cosmetic issues, musculoskeletal injuries, joint dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, and more, but you can bet you should at least consider looking into a treatment if you have any of these issues. Due to a current lack of standardization and consensus in the research, there is no definitive answer as to whether or not you as an individual should try PRP, or whether it will be effective for you and your unique issues. However, based on the incredible safety profile of PRP, it’s simple mechanisms of action, and the potential it has for healing various tissues, we recommend reading on and deciding for yourself. 

How PRP Works

When you break it down to the nuts and bolts, the functional properties of PRP are mainly based on the creation and secretion of the many growth factors that are released by platelets after activation.

Platelets (or more technically, thrombocytes) are the body’s first response to injury and they quickly arrive at the site of damaged tissue to begin their work clotting blood and releasing various growth factors and other substances needed for repair. Some of the major growth factors released by the granules within platelets include:

After a patient’s own blood is drawn, it is placed in a centrifuge and spun to separate the blood from the plasma and its constituents, then the concentrated plasma is then reinjected into the targeted tissues. This process creates a concentration of platelets up to 10x what is normally found in whole blood and with all this growth-factor power concentrated into one specific area in the body, the healing process is able to be kickstarted or enhanced greatly. 

It is important to note that a greater concentration of platelets does not necessarily mean better results!

Based on this incredibly straightforward (and yet, also complex) mechanism of action, it is easy to see why PRP may have the potential to change the way chronic pain, joint disintegration, wrinkles, erectile dysfunction, and many more disorders will be treated in the near future. Mechanisms aren’t the only impressive feature of PRP. In fact, there is plenty of clinical application for both musculoskeletal pathologies, as well as aesthetic use of PRP injections.

PRP may be instrumental in dealing with an incredibly pressing issue – one that impacts an estimated 50% of American adults. 

Musculoskeletal Restoration

PRP has been used extensively for the treatment of many musculoskeletal disorders but results have varied depending upon the individual and their specific issues. Research has concluded that PRP treatment can improve healing in soft tissues and bone – showing the most promise for afflictions like:

  • Knee osteoarthritis
  • Rotator cuff tears
  • MCL injuries

Unfortunately, there currently exists a lack of standardization amongst research techniques, effectively hindering any consensus from developing regarding the efficacy of PRP treatment. That hasn’t stopped those at the forefront of regenerative medicine from restoring tendons, ligaments, and joints at a fundamental level by releasing the potent growth factors available within PRP. To ensure the successful application of PRP for treating musculoskeletal dysfunction or degradation, a skilled practitioner will often utilize an ultrasound to guide the procedure. This technical prowess, as well as a thorough screening process to verify that PRP will be effective for an individual, is key to the successful application of a platelet-rich plasma treatment. 

As PRP treatment advances and becomes more widely utilized, more and more benefits have begun to emerge – many of which are entirely backed by research and have been proven effective by actual application.

PRP & Aesthetic Rejuvenation

PRP and Aesthetics

Taking into consideration the fact that the term rejuvenation can be used as a vague and generic defining characteristic, let’s start by clearly explaining exactly what we mean by it.

Rejuvenation is “the action or process of making someone or something look or feel better, younger, or more vital”. In this sense, PRP absolutely does rejuvenate tissues – allowing them to heal, and objectively improve based on a wide array of parameters. 

It is widely known that the stimulative effects of PRP on fibroblasts (cells that create collagen and other connective tissues), as well as its ability to promote the secretion of hyaluronic acid and Type I procollagen are just a few of the mechanisms by which these treatments are able to vastly improve both the appearance and health of skin. PRP has even been used to enhance sexual function in both men and women. Basically, there are few tissues found thus far that won’t respond favorably to the skillful application of PRP. Luckily, there is plenty of objective research supporting it’s aesthetic efficacy. 

In a systematic review of the cosmetic applications of PRP by Motosko, et. al., they concluded that platelet-rich plasma injections can reliably result in:

  • Improved skin texture
  • Color homogeneity
  • Increased firmness/elasticity
  • Increased volume
  • Enhanced dermal thickness
  • Reduced solar elastosis (sun damage)
  • Decreased wrinkles
  • Reduced severity of nasolabial folds
  • Minimized acne scars
  • Alleviated erythema
  • And last but not least, satisfied patients

Overall, the majority of studies fully support the use of PRP as a beneficial treatment for facial aesthetics. It is also important to note, in most studies that have a wide age group, there is no significant difference found in positive response rates between those of younger age, and subjects of an advanced age. This highlights the fundamental power PRP has to work with our bodies, not against them like many modern approaches to “healing” tend to do. Our need to try any means of augmenting the healing process becomes increasingly dire as we age, due to our growing inability to complete the complex processes involved in restoring our bodies. You can certainly say that the research behind PRP is promising, but it is no less rife with disagreements. 

No Standard Opinion

Without a doubt, the largest obstacle to PRP being entirely proven effective (or disproven), is a lack of standardization within the research. Methods of concentrating platelets can vary greatly, resulting in subjects essentially receiving different doses in different studies. Also, there exists great individual differences in platelet numbers on any given day, which means those disparities will need to be controlled for in future research. This field is evolving rapidly and a more evolved understanding of the complex interaction between the immune system and signals from injured tissues has been accompanied by an increase in the use of PRP therapy to help heal musculoskeletal injuries, kickstart the rejuvenation of skin, improve sexual function, and a whole lot more.

Other Healing Compounds

There are a few other items that are strong contenders with PRP for healing properties on the body. Thymosin Beta 4 (TB-500), and BPC-157 (Body Protection Compound) are two promising compounds that have proven to have some potential. Currently, you can buy bpc-157 injections through online telewellness providers, whereas TB-500 isn’t as accessible, unless purchased through less trusted sources with possible legality issues. Some peptides are likely to assist in the healing process as well. You can buy sermorelin injections, cjc-1295, and ipamorelin online, also through telewellness providers. Each of these items help to increase HGH levels in the body, which is essential to cell health.

Body Protection Compound 157 (BPC-157)

Half of the population of American adults live with some sort of musculoskeletal injury¹.

Put more simply, this means that half of us experience chronic pain or dysfunction in our joints, muscles, or bones.

To varying degrees, these injuries can be quite debilitating and are notoriously difficult to fully heal from. Joint structures, ligaments, and tendons are categorically known to be hypovascular – meaning they have relatively few blood vessels compared to other tissues in the body. This lack of blood supply typically results in a prolonged healing process and an increased potential for reinjury in the future. Currently, the standard of care for musculoskeletal injuries involves the use of corticosteroids. Despite their destructive effects on tissues and organs, corticosteroids remain the primary (and controversial) treatment for such injuries due to a general lack of other viable options. Short of surgical interventions, (musculoskeletal-related surgeries absolutely dominate the list of top surgeries performed each year) there just aren’t many options for managing pain from such issues, let alone healing them. Fortunately, our body’s may have provided us with exactly that, an option – the promising compound called BPC-157.

BPC-157 Has Been Around

You might be surprised to find out that BPC-157 has been making the rounds in the scientific research community for quite some time. It was first introduced and overviewed in the Journal of Physiology by Sikirić et al. back in 1993². BPC-157 is a fifteen amino acid fragment of a protein (a peptide) found in human gastric juice. Luckily, it’s ability to regenerate tissue isn’t limited to our stomachs, however. In fact, BPC-157 has been found to promote increased healing and repair in nearly every kind of tissue in which it has been studied thus far.

Our primary focus today will be its proven effects on musculoskeletal repair, it’s potential mechanisms of action, what to do before trying BPC-157, and where you can find reliable, quality sources of this body protecting compound – we will also briefly touch on some potentially promising benefits and effects of BPC-157 across the body.

How Does BPC Work?

It is well known in the research that BPC-157 circulates throughout the entire body, whether it is taken orally or injected subcutaneously.

It has also been shown that BPC is specifically attracted to signalling molecules produced by injured tissues, yet the exact mechanism with which it heals the tissues is not known for certain, and likely varies depending on the particular tissue(s), as well as the nature of the injury.

Although the mechanisms of action are not fully understood, the scientific literature has identified some potential sources of this compound’s healing power, including its effect on nitric oxide, the FAK-paxillin pathway (focal adhesion kinase – an enzyme present in injured tissues), increased VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) activity, and the upregulation of growth hormone receptors in injured tissues. VEGF specifically is responsible for angiogenesis, or the creation of new blood vessels and is the most likely mechanism through which BPC-157 is able to promote the healing of joint structures, tendons, and ligaments. Additionally, most joint structures, ligaments, and tendons are composed primarily of different kinds of collagen, and their healing capacity can benefit from increases in collagen production stimulated by BPC-157. Like we mentioned already, these structures have a relatively slow healing process – once healed, they may still lack the structural integrity they had prior.

How Can BPC-157 Be Administered?

BPC-157 and Healing

BPC-157 has traditionally been administered via an injection as near as possible to the location of injury. Unfortunately, injected medications typically have a much lower rate of patient compliance when compared to easier administration routes such as oral delivery. One of the biggest obstacles to developing an orally administered version of any treatment happens to be the volatile and acidic environment within the stomach.

Fortunately, BPC-157 is stable in this kind of environment – likely thanks to the fact that it was discovered in gastric juice. Yet another unique quality of this peptide is that it can be administered through various routes and still remain effective. Researchers have tested BPC-157 administration orally via tablets and dissolved in drinking water, applied topically via transdermal patches and creams, rectally, and through intraperitoneal (abdominal) injections. In fact, every route of administration tested thus far has yielded positive healing outcomes.

What Else Does BPC Help?

This intriguing peptide also has many potential benefits outside of helping musculoskeletal repair and recovery. It is currently being researched for potential positive effects it may have on neurological disorders and inflammation, and it has profound evidence for healing gut issues like lesions caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This is especially interesting because NSAIDs are one of the primary medications utilized for chronic joint pain and other such ailments. The entire class of medications known as NSAIDs are proving to have more and more side effects with their prolonged usage by the population as a whole. If BPC-157 does indeed prove effective for not only healing the issues that were once treated with NSAIDs and corticosteroids, but also reversing or healing damage caused by them, it would be an obviously vast improvement over these outdated practices.

One commonly prescribed corticosteroid named 6alpha-methylprednisolone is incredibly effective at reducing inflammation and pain, but it comes with a whole host of unwanted side effects including the delayed healing of injured tissue. One study looking at the co-administration of BPC and 6alpha-methylprednisolone had astounding results: BPC-157 produced faster muscle healing and full function restoration and also improved muscle healing – despite systemic corticosteroid treatment when given intraperitoneally or locally. Positive results were demonstrated functionally, macroscopically, and histologically at all investigated time intervals³.

Before You Give BPC a Try

Due to its unique status somewhere between a nutritional supplement and a pharmaceutical drug, BPC-157 has not yet been extensively studied in humans.

However, in the human trials that have already been done, as well as in clinical application that has already taken place, there have been essentially no reported adverse events. Those that have been reported come through anecdote primarily, and consist of digestive issues and nausea. Before you purchase BPC-157 for musculoskeletal injuries and dysfunction you should assess potential nutritional deficiencies as well as possible behavioral/lifestyle issues that may be at the root of your joint, bone, or muscle pain.

Consistent and prolonged sitting, poor exercise form, inactivity, fatty acid deficiency, and other factors may be contributing to your chronic pain or discomfort and addressing them will help ensure BPC-157 is able to have a positive effect. More research is certainly needed for BPC-157 to replace surgeries and pain medication as the standard of care for musculoskeletal injuries – however, it is certainly the most promising compound available for this purpose. It’s lack of adverse events, as well as the fact that it has no known toxicity levels should be encouraging enough for those in suffering to give it a try. Keep in mind, even surgery is not able to promise a solution to the chronic pain that is being experienced by 50% of American adults, and the side effect profiles of NSAIDs and corticosteroids demands an alternative treatment be developed.

Where To Buy BPC

There are a variety of websites out there that are all racing to provide customers with BPC-157 and other peptides at the lowest cost possible. This inevitably results in companies cutting corners and providing products that are either diluted or that actually contain none of the advertised compounds. Your best bet is to visit a wellness or anti-aging clinic that sources their peptides from a compounding pharmacy that has an excellent track record as well as client testimonials to back it up. Another fantastic option is to buy BPC-157 injections through a clinic that provides telemedicine and allows you to speak to a licensed medical professional, receive a prescription, and order products all in the same place. There are few compounds that show as much promise as BPC-157 and it is likely to improve the quality of life for countless people suffering from joint and muscle pain in the coming years. 

¹ “One in two Americans have a musculoskeletal condition.” Science Daily,  March 1, 2016,

² Sikirić, P. et al. “A new gastric juice peptide, BPC. An overview of the stomach-stress-organoprotection hypothesis and beneficial effects of BPC.” Journal of Physiology-Paris, Volume 87, Issue 5, 1993, Pages 313-327

³ Pevec, Danira, et al. “Impact of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on muscle healing impaired by systemic corticosteroid application.” Med Sci Monit, 2010; 16(3): BR81-88

Light Exposure and your Health

Healers of all kinds have appreciated the power of light since the beginning of time.

The father of medicine himself, Hippocrates was a great advocate of what is known as heliotherapy, or harnessing the power of the sun to heal ailments or generally improve health. If you doubt the ability light has to impact our health, consider the fact that we are able to create vitamin D from the sun’s rays  (more info on just how important Vitamin D is).

Yet, not many us are aware of the endless list of other effects (good and bad) that we can experience from light exposure – not just from the sun but from all sources. 

Light, Good or Bad?

Not all light is considered equal however.

Some forms of light are restorative and healing, while others are potentially harmful – especially those which we have developed with alongside modern technology. Becoming more aware of the potential pitfalls of unnatural light sources, like how they may be affecting our physiology and our ability to function optimally as human beings, is a prerequisite to developing a plan to manage exposure to them. 

There are a few kinds of light that especially stand out in both research and public awareness.

Red light (of all varieties), and blue light appear to be unique with regards to their ability to impact our health on multiple levels. Understanding these unique forms of light is crucial to harnessing their power, as well as mitigating the damage that blue light can cause. As with many things in the field of health and wellness, there aren’t clear lines of which kind(s) of light are good and which are bad – we must view the evidence from the perspective of scientific research, and temper our subjectively developed opinions with a consideration of ancestral wisdom and experience. It is also important to consider what is practical in our modern lives (as it is nearly impossible to entirely avoid harmful light exposure), and create a plan for reducing the damage it may cause. Understanding how different sources of light in your external environment have the ability to affect your internal environment will allow you to develop a plan to start sleeping better, have more energy, reduce stress, perform better in the gym, and generally live healthier lives more in tune with the natural rhythms our body’s thrive on.

Everyone will respond to light exposure differently, but the major forms we will focus on today have robust evidence to support their general effects on human physiology. 

Blue Light

There is an extremely bright ball of gas at the center of our solar system emitting wavelengths of light throughout the entire spectrum, visible and invisible

This includes the UVB rays that have been vilified somewhat recently (but are also required for the production of vitamin D), blue light which has a stimulatory effect on our brain and body, and the various forms red light which have healing and restorative properties. Concentrations of blue light within the sun’s rays are especially high during times when the sun is highest in the sky (this coincides with when the waking hormone cortisol should be elevated).

We absolutely want to experience blue light exposure from sun, especially during the day in order to help establish and maintain our circadian rhythm, a biological pattern which is essentially at the root of how light can impact our health. Unfortunately, blue light is nearly all we are exposed to now.

Blue light from our smartphones, overhead lighting, laptops, headlights, and almost anything that emits light has the ability to affect our physiology in a fundamental way. Our brains interpret this blue light as a signal that it is daytime, suppressing melatonin production, inhibiting sleep and restorative processes that this hormone and potent antioxidant is responsible for facilitating. By now this fact is relatively common knowledge, but what is likely misunderstood is the severity in which it impacts our health. Suppressing melatonin production within the brain, and therefore disrupting normal sleep patterns has profound implications across the entire body.

Quality sleep is predicated on a rhythmic dance between certain hormones within the body, particularly melatonin and cortisol. These two hormones are fundamentally opposed and having elevated levels of cortisol at inappropriate times can result in an inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or simply a disruption of normal sleep cycles. Although far from the only thing that has the ability to disrupt sleep, exposure to blue light is likely our largest offender currently. Widespread awareness of this fact is demonstrated by the increased use of blue-blocking glasses before bed, as well as a general focus in the wellness community on creating a light-environment conducive to sleep. Discussing how to develop a light-environment to promote restful sleep is another discussion entirely, but for now there is another concern that should be addressed.

Increasingly, there is another equally detrimental effect appearing from chronic, artificial blue-light exposure. Constant blue light exposure appears to accelerate what is known as macular degeneration – essentially deterioration of the eye. This is because we are experiencing blue light at much higher concentrations than ever experienced in the history of human beings. Macular degeneration was once thought to only occur as a result of the normal aging process but unfortunately, children are especially susceptible to this damage and rates of this issue occurring within the younger population are skyrocketing. It is safe to say that light affects us in ways that we do not yet fully comprehend. Another excellent example of the almost mysterious effect light can have on the human body are those caused by red, near infrared, and far infrared light.

Red Light

Red Light Therapy

Red and infrared light (both near and far) have profound effects on the human body. These wavelengths of light are all able to fundamentally impact our cellular function, causing downstream effects across the body (more information on red light therapy). They also do not impact sleep negatively because they do not suppress melatonin production – perhaps due to the fact that red light was most abundant in the sun’s rays during sunrise and sunset.

Overall, red light has predominantly healing properties, when compared to blue light. The same reasons we are exposed to inappropriately high amounts of blue light (e.g. the average American spends 93% of their time indoors), are why we are not exposed to adequate amounts of the various forms of red light. We are seeing the anecdotal evidence of the potential benefits red light therapy pile up while being increasingly corroborated by peer-reviewed research. Luckily, there are a few things that you can do to dramatically improve your light exposure in your home that will have major downstream effects on your health.

Shaping your light environment

Human beings undoubtedly experienced light rhythmically. We did not have overhead lighting or even flashlights until relatively recently – when the sun went down so did we.

Short of exclusively using fire or candle light for illumination in your home, there are quite a few things you can do to limit your exposure to the disruptive blue light that seems ubiquitous in 2020.

  • Because it is likely unrealistic to ask the average person to avoid looking at all screens and devices hours before bed, we suggest that you get yourself a good pair of blue blocking glasses that have been tested to verify their effectiveness. 
  • Make sure to reduce overhead lighting as much as possible for at least a few hours before bed – utilize dimmers, candles, or even a salt lamp instead.
  • During the day, get enough exposure to the sun to anchor your circadian clock in the correct rhythm.
  • Also, consider using a red light therapy device, which are becoming extremely popular due to their ability to provide us with this nourishing and restorative form of light that we are often missing out on.

There are many more reasons to become aware of and begin managing your light exposure, but perhaps most important is its effect on sleep. Getting enough quality sleep is always a top priority for our wellness clients and should be at the foundation of any health and fitness pursuit.

Once you have been in the health and wellness space for long enough, you will begin to notice that many of the tools and strategies developed to improve health are really nothing new. They are, more often than not, designed to replace elements of our ancestral existence that we no longer experience. Sauna, red light exposure, intermittent fasting, and even exercise are all simply replacing aspects of everyday life that are no longer experienced due to modern technological, societal, and cultural advancements. Some things belong at the top of your priorities list if you hope to optimize your body and mind and understanding proper light exposure is one of them.

Sermorelin & Ipamorelin

Nothing can be accomplished in the human body without a signal.

This signal can come in many forms, but it is often a hormone of some kind.

Our powerful hormones can be created from various kinds of molecules and they possess the ability to stop, start, enhance, or restrict the actions of various glands, tissues, organs, and systems across the body. Imagine that we were able harness this power to do the same thing – control processes throughout the body at will by introducing the signal(s) that we need.

Well, we live in an amazing time, because one of the more recent breakthroughs in the fields of biological signalling and anti-aging involves the harnessing of peptides to do just that. Therapeutic peptides (short chains of amino acids/fragments of proteins) originate from molecules that already occur naturally within the body, but we are now able to build and utilize them for a variety of purposes. Research and anecdotal reports are proving that certain peptides can effectively slow down the aging process, increase muscle mass, decrease body fat, reduce inflammation, heal the gut, and likely countless other potential applications still waiting to be discovered.

Two specific peptides that are brilliant examples of what modern medicine is able to do in order to slow down the aging process are sermorelin acetate (a.k.a sermorelin) and ipamorelin. These signaling molecules mimic two separate endogenous hormones, enabling them to stimulate the release of growth hormone naturally from the pituitary gland – and they are able to do so in a way that is safe, unique, and complementary with one another. This synergistic effect is exactly why practitioners and patients are experiencing incredible results by combining sermorelin and ipamorelin. This dynamic duo’s ability to work together will be the focus of this article but we will also cover how they differ from one another, the potential side effects of each, and who to trust with your peptide protocols in order to ensure that you are getting the highest quality products and services available.

Peptides have quickly positioned themselves at the forefront of individualized medicine and they may have the ability to drastically improve your health and quality of life. How peptides work in the body may seem like something out of a science fiction novel, but the research, mechanisms, and real world experiences of people all over the world are proving them to be anything but fiction. 

What Are Peptides?

It’s probably best we start with breaking down some more of the mystery that surrounds peptides. In this context, peptides are essentially just signalling molecules that have been derived from, or are compounds already found within the body.

Sermorelin and ipamorelin are both categorized as growth hormone secretagogues. Secretagogues are nothing more than something that promotes the secretion/release of a chemical messenger such as a hormone. In this case, they promote the production and secretion of growth hormone from the amazing little hormone factory in your brain called the pituitary gland. What is most interesting is that they are able to accomplish this task in vastly different, yet complementary ways. 

Sermorelin Mechanism of Action

Sermorelin stimulates the production and release of growth hormone in a relatively straightforward way – by mimicking growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH).

You don’t need to know much about the endocrine system or peptides in order to successfully guess what GHRH does – it causes the release of growth hormone. GHRH is typically released from another location within your brain and then it travels to the pituitary gland where it is interpreted and acted upon. When GHRH is administered in the form of sermorelin however, the peptide flows through your entire circulation – binding to GHRH receptors in areas all over the body, but especially on the pituitary gland. Another important aspect of using sermorelin to stimulate growth hormone release is that it allows the body’s natural feedback (shutoff) mechanisms to function properly. Once sermorelin has stimulated a certain amount of growth hormone to be released, another hormone known as somatostatin kicks in, effectively shutting down the growth hormone release. Like we said, the mechanism by which sermorelin works in the body is pretty straightforward – ipamorelin on the other hand, will take a bit more explanation. 

Ipamorelin Mechanism of Action

Ipamorelin acts in an entirely unique way to stimulate growth hormone release. To fully understand it, we will need to quickly cover an entirely new hormone that we have yet to discuss named ghrelin.

Ipamorelin is able to mimic ghrelin in exactly the same way sermorelin is able to mimic GHRH. Although ghrelin doesn’t get as much attention as some of the A-list hormones like insulin, growth hormone, testosterone, and estrogen, it absolutely should be a household name due to its importance within the body. Only discovered in 1999, ghrelin has profound regulatory effects on your metabolism including increasing or decreasing hunger, inhibiting stored fat breakdown, and perhaps most importantly for this article, the release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. Ghrelin is one of only three hormones which have the ability to regulate growth hormone release from the pituitary gland. First is GHRH (sermorelin or similar molecule), then there is somatostatin (which stops the release of growth hormone), and last but not least is ghrelin. Ghrelin is able to act upon the pituitary gland in this way because growth hormone is partially responsible for initiating the breakdown of stored body fat for use as energy, as well as preventing the breakdown of muscle tissue – among many other roles. 

Now that you have an idea of how ghrelin is able to influence growth hormone release, understanding how a peptide that functionally mimics ghrelin is able to initiate the release of growth hormone should be a pretty easy leap. Ipamorelin binds to ghrelin receptors on the pituitary gland, switching them on in the same way that ghrelin naturally would. These on-switches are completely separate from the ones that sermorelin activates, enabling them to work synergistically to accomplish the same task. Most importantly, they are able to do so with no effect on the rest of your body’s hormones. There is always one major factor which must be evaluated whenever you are considering any kind of anti-aging treatment however – whether the benefits outweigh the potential side-effects. Fortunately, in the case of utilizing sermorelin and ipamorelin, that choice seems to be pretty easy to make.

Side Effects of Sermorelin and Ipamorelin

Neither sermorelin or ipamorelin have many side effects that are likely to send anyone to seek help elsewhere in the fight against the aging process.

In fact, ipamorelin specifically is largely considered to be one of the safest and most effective peptide treatments available. Sermorelin has been known to cause mild side-effects for some people such as flushing, headaches, nausea, dizziness, and redness or swelling around the injection site. Ipamorelin’s possible side effects mirror that of sermorelin with headaches and nausea topping the list of adverse events reported from using the impressively safe peptide.

Both are typically safe and side-effect free when used in the doses prescribed by a qualified medical practitioner. Knowing what that dosage should be is yet another reason why it is important to purchase your peptides from a reputable source. Unsurprisingly, there really is no shortage of websites selling inferior anti-aging products containing little or no actual peptides or other beneficial compounds. That being said, starting a peptide protocol can be done online safely and easily with a bit of education first. 

Buy Sermorelin & Ipamorelin Online

Finding a reliable business you can trust comes down to a few things.

First, look for a website that requires you to speak to a medical professional to obtain your prescription. In order to buy ipamorelin or sermorelin online, you are required to have a prescription just like you would at any pharmacy. There are businesses that offer telehealth services like Ikon Health that are able to walk you through this entire process from the convenience of your smartphone. If the company doesn’t require a prescription, find one that does!

Second, look for a company that has a solid track record with customer feedback to back it up. If they are a reliable company, they will no doubt have testimonials from patients that have worked with them. Buying peptides online may have been a questionable endeavor in the past, but luckily the industry has evolved and there are now many companies that provide excellent service, products, and results. 

Should You Try Sermorelin & Ipamorelin?

Ipamorelin and sermorelin are just two of the many peptides that have earned an excellent record of safety and effectiveness. Those individuals who are looking for the physiological and psychological benefits of naturally increasing growth hormone should look no further than these two peptide treatments. If you are searching for more energy, an improved body composition, and to generally fight the aging process, a protocol combining these two potent growth hormone secretagogues is an excellent choice. Visit our website today or come into our location to speak with one of our staff to buy CJC-1295 or purchase Ipamorelin. Unlike most wellness clinics, at Ikon Health we know that tools like peptides, injections, and IV therapy are but only part of the big picture – making lasting changes will take time and effort!

Thymosin A1: Effective Immunity

In order for our immune system to fully protect us, it needs to be able to maintain balance.

Too strong or too weak of an immune response can manifest any manner of disease and dysfunction.

How exactly this internal balance is struck involves an incredibly complex network of organs, cells, hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors that require a never-ending supply of minerals, amino acids, vitamins, and antioxidants, along countless other resources that, together allow you to form the barrier between you and the outside world. This intricate system relies upon you to support it by getting enough sleep, reducing stress where possible, eating a diet that is actually full of nutrients, and by building your overall resilience through exercise.

If you are already living a healthy lifestyle, and you’re seeking to further enhance how your immune system can function, consider a clinically proven tool from the fascinating field of peptides: the biological response modifier (BRM) thymosin ɑ1 or TA1. Peptides are fundamentally changing the way we can approach chronic disease, hormonal insufficiencies, cognitive disorders, infections, and even the root causes of aging. By using highly specific substances like peptides which are created naturally in the body, we are able to avoid the unwanted side effects that are the major drawback to modern pharmaceuticals. TA1 seems to be an especially effective peptide that has shown promise through testing in both animals and in humans, in the lab and the clinic, and has even been shown to have less side effects than placebo in some research. 

TA1 is a peptide derived from a protein found in human thymus glands called prothymosin alpha. Consisting of 28 amino acids, TA1 was originally isolated from thymus tissue way back in the 1970’s and its potential for modulating the immune system, inhibiting cancer growth, calming autoimmune disorders, controlling infectious disease, and much more has been studied extensively ever since.

Currently, TA1 seems to be painfully underutilized in a healthcare system that concentrates on treating symptoms rather than their root cause. This allopathic or symptoms-focused approach to “healing” is hopefully approaching an eventual shift in the public’s paradigm that will call for more individualized approaches to treating and eliminating chronic disease by utilizing tools such as peptides and other modalities. TA1 opens many doors for supporting and improving immune function by acting on immune cells, modulating inflammation, influencing genetic expression and transcription factors, and so much more. All this sounds very technical, but in reality TA1 was discovered due to research investigating a very obvious avenue to approach for immune system enhancement. 

What is Thymosin ɑ1 and How Does it Work?

If you can remember back to your highschool anatomy days, you likely recall that the thymus gland is essential for both immune and endocrine function – more specifically for the development, maturation, and education of T cells who are our little immune warriors and crucial for our ability to adapt to and overcome specific pathogens.

If any of this jogs your memory, you are also probably aware of the fact that, after puberty, your thymus gland begins to atrophy or wither away in a process known as involution. Although the T cells that your once-robust thymus produced still remain effective, the actual gland itself becomes but a shell of what it once was – in fact, it was once considered to be a vestigial organ in adults, though it does still remain somewhat active throughout life. Research done in animals that were missing a thymus gland found that reintroducing thymosin fraction 5 (TF5, the origin of TA1) was able to enhance immune function. Thus, the next logical step would be to isolate the active section or functional component of TF5 of this protein (a.k.a the peptide fragment: TA1) and begin testing. As the research progressed, scientists began to identify the mechanisms by which TA1 can impact overall immune function, some of the potential benefits for individuals suffering from things like cancer and hepatitis, how it might prevent the escalation of infection, and much more. 

How Does Thymosin A1 Work? 

To understand how TA1 can influence the immune system, it is important to understand some of the key players that regulate immunity. These include cytokines, chemokines, thymosins, growth factors, and various endogenous antioxidants and other compounds. Each of these unique compounds are dubbed “biological response modifiers” (BRMs) due to their ability to either enhance or inhibit immune system function – depending upon what is required at any given time. In many cases, the use of TA1 or another BRM has been proven extremely effective in combination with conventional therapies and may increase the efficacy of treatment, decrease mortality, and lower morbidity when compared to any single treatment alone. In addition to modulating the immune system, TA1 can influence both the central nervous system and endocrine system, a rather unique ability even in the fascinating realm of peptides. TA1 may also be able to enhance immune system function by:

  • Increasing the maturation of T cells.
  • Boosting the overall efficiency of immune cells.
  • Stimulating NK (natural killer) cells – crucial for the elimination of viruses and viral-infected cells.
  • Managing cytokine/chemokine levels to ensure an appropriate immune response.
  • Directly depressing viral replication.
  • Modulating genes involved with immune function.
  • Facilitating differentiation of toll-like receptors (these guys sense pathogens and initiate an immune response).
  • Increasing the expression of class I MHC (this major histocompatibility complex is on the surface of cells to signal to the immune system they have been invaded by a virus).
  • Amplifying cytokine receptors.
  • Enhancing the activation of dendritic immune cells.

This broad list of mechanisms, and a complete lack of side effects is only part of the reason that TA1 is such an incredibly promising addition to standard treatments for autoimmune disorders, infections, viral disease, cancer, and more. 

What Has Been Proven Thus Far?

Research has consistently proven Thymosin Alpha to be effective at improving the immune response and stopping the progression of many viral, bacterial, and fungal infections.

Although a lot of the current research has been done in animal models (funding for peptide research is relatively scarce), TA1 has been FDA approved since 1985 (it’s the active ingredient in brand name Zadaxin) and it is commonly used in 35 countries for the treatment of multiple forms of hepatitis and cancer. What seems to be precisely a ton of preclinical and clinical trials (a PubMed search yields over 700 studies) have investigated TA1 and a significant number of them have deemed this awesome peptide effective at treating other human viral diseases besides just hepatitis including those caused by cytomegalovirus, influenza, and various other disease states owed to microbes. TA1 may also increase the ability of immune-compromised individuals to respond favorably to vaccinations. 

One of the even more intriguing effects of TA1 however, involves its ability to vastly improve the outcome of individuals suffering from sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock.

According to the Sepsis Alliance, sepsis is the leading cause of death in hospitals. This reign may hopefully end someday, as research is showing that combining TA1 with some more conventional antimicrobial strategies may just be the key to making death from sepsis a far less likely occurrence. One study published in the Chinese Journal of Critical Care found that by adding the TA1 peptide to a standard sepsis treatment, survivability was improved significantly (86% vs. 58%) compared to the standard treatment only group. Not only that, but the TA1 group spent significantly less time on mechanical ventilation.

Similar findings were reported by another study that consisted of 342 patients – basically, TA1 has plenty of research behind it that all points to the same conclusion:

TA1 can increase our odds of overcoming the deadly downhill slide that is the progression from infection to septic shock and death.

Dig into the related research and you will find that TA1 has been utilized as part of the successful treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), AIDS, pneumonia, and as we already mentioned, hepatitis and different forms of cancer. TA1 is able to have such profound effects because it helps to maintain the fundamental balance that is required for optimal immune function. It not only increases the effectiveness of your immune cells, but it also acts directly on targeted problem cells – making them more visible to the immune system.

Bottom Line on Thymosin ɑ1

The burgeoning field of peptides is only beginning to become more widely accepted – as it becomes more understood. Thymosin ɑ1 stands out so much that the co-founder and vice president of Tailor Made Compounding (one of only a few compounding pharmacies that has the ability to create actually effective peptides) considers it to be one of his favorite peptides – and there are a lot of peptides! He has utilized it to help patients with certain kinds of herpes, Lyme disease, at the onset of flus and colds, autoimmune issues, and for general anti-aging purposes as well the obvious indications like hepatitis, as a vaccine adjuvant, and for some forms of cancer. It is genuinely difficult to find another intervention that has the ability to so positively impact your immune function and overall health.

Although we have already preached this, it is important to note that TA1 won’t be effective at supporting immunity unless you are also taking care of (at least most) of the fundamentals for immune health: 

  1. Get enough good sleep. 
  2. Stay active/lift weights.
  3. Manage chronic stress.
  4. Eat food that actually supports physiological function.
  • 1
  • 2

Tri-Cities - Serving Kennewick, Richland, Pasco, and surrounding areas.